Thursday, May 14, 2020
Hip Hop In Africa Hip Hop in Africa is used to spread awareness and evoke calls to action on sensitive subjects that affect the majority of the people in Africa. Hip Hop influences many people in Africa because it is meaningful and only tends to speak about the positives and negatives of African society.Hip Hop in Africa is used as a method to spread awareness on HIV/Aids, create a call to action to tell people to save themselves when tragedies hit, and change the way parents raise their children. One way that Hip Hop improves African society is that it spreads important messages about family values. Stating that young people in Senegal lose themselves as a result of parents enforcing negative things to their kids.The song Ã¢â¬Å"MariamaÃ¢â¬ by Senegalese rapper Omzo Dollar gives a call to action, warning people, youth in general, that young people in Senegal lose themselves as a result of parents enforcing negative things to their kids. It starts off with a young girl, who is in a rush to grow up. She meets the love of her life and all seem perfect. The love of the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s life was nice and promised to protect the girl from abuse.Her parents forced her to betray the man that she genuinely loved. The girlÃ¢â¬â¢s parents did not care or put any consideration into account, the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. They just wanted their daughter to marry a wealthy man. The girl and the man she loved slowly began to grow distant, it was leading to an end. The man gave Hip HopShow MoreRelatedThe Hip Hop Generation And Its Impact On Society1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages102 Argumentative Essay 6 December 2015 The Hip Hop Generation and its Impact on Society. Throughout history, Hip Hop has manifest into more than a simple form of life, but as a powerful cultural movement. Hip Hop plays a major part in African American culture, dialogue, fashion, and self expression. Today, Hip Hop has a joined people of many nationalities, races, and ethnicities as a society. The Hip Hop Generation has begun to redefine African American cultural norms and practices in AmericaRead MoreWhat is Hip Hop?1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontroversy regarding the derogative nature of Hip-hop, One cannot downplay the cultural influences that hip-hop has impressed on the world. Merriam-Webster defines hip-hop as the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap (citation). Although the conventional definition of hip-hop is generally correct, it does not adequately portray the gravity of the movement. Coined by the urban youth, Hip-hop has forced its way to the pinnacle of mainstream America. Hip-hopÃ¢â¬â¢s massive influence on the EnglishRead MoreThe Ri se Of Hip Hop Culture1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Rise of Hip Hop Culture Hip hop, the creation of electronic sound and enticing language is a style born from the African American and Hispanic cultures. It formed in New York City from block parties and the participation of the youth culture. This style of music began as a minimal change in rhythm to a globally popular culture consisting of graffiti art, dancing, and music. Hip hop was not only a type of tasteful music, but it also became a benchmark in history. When this style of music wasRead MoreThe Effect of Hip-Hop on Female AAE Speakers Essay1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespopular RB/Hip-Hop songs in 2013. Because hip-hop is a very large part of the African American culture, and many speakers of African American English (AAE) are portrayed through these songs, women are often highly influenced by the objectification of their bodies in hip-hop songs. Since the emergence of the hip-hop genre in popular culture in the 1960s and 70s, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies have been sexually objectified through this music. Al though the impact of the sexualization of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies in hip-hop songsRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Hip Hop Music1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Rhetorical Analysis of Hip-Hop Music Sharon Rhetorical Analysis of hip-hop music among Black Americans in Ã¢â¬ËFrom the margins to the mainstream: the political power of hip-hopÃ¢â¬â¢ by Katina R. Stapleton Thesis: the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on hip-hop as a music genre that has changed the lives of the black Americans Introduction In this article, the speaker must be an expert in politics, ethnicity and the music industry. There is a linkage between the above fields hence the speaker must have hadRead MoreBenefits Of Hip Hop784 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessome type of effect on them. One genre of music that effects some people is Hip hop; it allows others to express themselves and to feel more confident. Hip hop has extensive positive benefits for society; it allows the artists to speak about problems in the world like injustices, crime, or poverty, and it also helps with exercise by allowing the participant to accomplish aerobic and anaerobic benefits; furthermore, hip hop helps with therapy. To begin, Hip hop can benefit society by allowing peopleRead MoreThe Music Of The Hip Hop1673 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"I said the hip hop, Hippie to the hippie, the hip, hip hop, and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop, a rock it to the bang, bang boogie, say you jump the boogie, to the rhythm of the boogie, the beat.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"RapperÃ¢â¬â¢s DelightÃ¢â¬ is a song recorded in 1979 by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang. It was the original 12-inch single was 15 minutes of incontestable urban-playboy bragging. Ã¢â¬Å"RapperÃ¢â¬â¢s DelightÃ¢â¬ was not the first single but, it is generally considered to be the song that made hip hop in the United States popularRead MoreThe Portrayal Of Women Of Contemporary Rap Videos1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexamine the portrayal of women in contemporary rap videos, and to see if it could be potentially harmful. Unfortunately within the music industry like many industries sex sells, and the media has brought to light this fixation. Hip-hop has persuaded a large portion of society that this is how women should be treated, but new times call for new measures and it is time that people realise this and give women the respect and dignity that many believe they surly deserve. In the rap world, women are a statusRead MoreThe Effects Of Violent Music On The Youth Culture1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe effect of violent music, both positive and negative towards African American men, women, and children. The articles also provides information that will support the reason how Hip-hop has such an impact on the youth culture, how Hip-hop is valued, and how the music and its lyrics are interpreted. Changing Images of Violence Rap music lyrics: 1979-1997 Hip- hop has both a negative and positive impact on African American lives. Over the past three decades, Hip-hop hasRead MoreRap Music : Hip Hop Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRap, or hip hop as some call it, ranks in the top ten of most popular music genres in the world. Since it burst on the scene in the late 1970s, rap music changed the landscape of the music industry, especially for African-American artists. The genre accredited some of the biggest names in the music industry. Popular artists like LL Cool J, Tupac, Notorious B. I. G., Jay-Z, Kanye West, and many others produce, or have produced, millions of hip-hop records. The secret to the success of hip hop centers
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There is no such thing as an absolute masculinity or femininity. However, society, culture and generation have created gender norms that define which behavior reflects maleness and femaleness. Smoking cigarette is one of the most common gendered patterns of behavior that is apparent for centuries. Tobacco consumption and smoking behavior pattern have been constantly changing over generation to generation. Moreover, many researches also show that smoking behavior is strongly associated with gender roles (Flandorfer, Wegner, Buber, 2010). According to Flandorfer, Wegner, and Buber (2010), men smoking prevalence was moderately low in the early 20th century but rapidly increased in the mid-20th century. Doll et al. (1997) says that Men prevalence continually increased over time until the Second World War [WWII] and it reached the highest rate in the 1970s (as cited in Hunt, Hannah, West, 2004, p. 239). Number of men smokers decreased after the WWII and in 1990s, the percentage of men s mokers of the population dropped from 52% to 28%. On the other hand, the prevalence of smoking women always remained low until the mid 1900s before WWII broke out. During and after the WWII, tobacco companies began to release advertisements directly targeting women; therefore, women smokers promptly increased after WWII, mainly in Britain. Nonetheless, the Office of National Statistics (2000) has found data that the number of women smokers also decreased in the 1990s compared to that of 1970sShow MoreRelatedSmoking Is Smoking A Lifestyle Or Disease?1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages000 Americans died of smoking-related maladies. This figure represents a twenty-four-point reduction in smoking rates since the first tobacco study conducted and published by the Office of the U.S Surgeon General in 1964 (HHS, 2014). These numbers represent a massive improvement, but smoking is still a disturbing blemish for an increasingly health-conscious and aware society. Despite these surprising statistics, the question remains: Is smoking a lifestyle or disease? Is smoking similar in nature toRead MoreSolutions for the Choice of my Addiction1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGeneral announced a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer, following the Lalonde report (1974) which defined smoking as an individual risk behavior. Thereafter, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) also joined this bold move and included tobacco dependence in its third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Moreover, the US Surgeon General finally declared that cigarette smoking is an addiction in their 1988 report. However, thereRead MoreHealth Promotion For Smoking Within Adult Population959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHealth Promotion for Smoking within Adult Population Ashley Davis Chamberlain College of Nursing Miramar FL Tobacco has been around for many years. Tobacco was usually harvested and used by the Native Americans for religious and medical purposes. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until settlers from the countries across the globe came and found it to be their main source of money if it was crop grown. They would chew it or put it into a pipe: By the late 19th century, cigarette making machines were inventedRead MoreThe United States : Social Class, Race, Ethnicity, And Health1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI. Introduction The American Medical Association (AMA) approximates that at least 25 cents of every dollar spent on health care in the U.S. is allocated to the management of diseases or debilities that stem from personal behaviors that can be changed by the individual (Andre et al)1. To what extent are people responsible for their own personal conduct and poor health decisions that result in serious, yet avoidable illnesses and disabilities? Will charging people higher health insurance premiumsRead MoreThe Ethical Problems of Gambling Essay example883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconstant need to gamble. There is another way that gambling can effect a person in a negative manner and it includes the physical harm gambling can cause. Gambling is often associated with alcohol consumption especially alcohol consumption that is excessive in nature. Gambling is also associated with smoking. Smoking cigarettes have been proven over time to cause many cancers or other illnesses. However, gambling can be equally as destructive mentally and financially as it is physically harmful. GamblingRead MoreHealth Behavior Change Diary Template On Quitting Cigarette Smoking1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHealth Behavior Change Diary Template on quitting cigarette smoking Health behavior I wish to change: Significant number of people has been addicted to the habit of smoking despite of knowing the fact that it is injurious to health. In the past, it was considered as the taboos and only adult group was habituated but currently, it is common among both adolescent and adult population. Cigarette smoking is habit of inhaling smoke of cigarette and releasing it. A study by Gong (2011, pp.48) revealsRead MoreAnalysis On Reduced Nicotine Content For Cigarettes1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKatherine Kim Health Psychology Paper Option A November 18, 2015 Analysis on Reduced-Nicotine Content for Cigarettes Smoking is a major problem concerning public health. It comes with many side effects that affect not only the smoker, but also victims of secondhand smoke and even thirdhand smoke. Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide that affects at least 6 million people a year. Previous research has shown that smokers die an average of 15 years earlier than non-smokers. EricRead MoreAn IndividualÃ¢â¬â¢S Health Is Dependent Not Only On The Behavioral1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinterventions were smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.15 It is important to note, however, that while the Finnish people did display a high risk for CVD based on a few key risk factors, they did not exhibit other risk factors for the condition, such as inactivity or obesity.9 The aforementioned immediate risk factors prevalent within Finland were strongly correlated to the lack of smoking regulations and influence from the powerful diary industry in the country. Smoking was a very commonRead MoreHsa 500634 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesunderstand how health is affected by behavior, economic and social structure and provided the knowledge to improve the health status of individuals and populations. Our health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure. Many behaviors and lifestyle patterns affect our health, such as: exposure to violence, vehicular accidents, alcohol, drugs, and infectious agents (Williams/Torrens). According to our textbook (Williams/Torrens), alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use creates severalRead MoreSmoking And Smoking1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Part A Explanation for Problem Smoking is a habit that exists in a significant number of the global population. On the global scale, nearly 1.1 billion people practice the habit or Ã¢â¦â of the adult population. The most appropriate explanation for the existence of this problem is social learning. Many smokers develop the habit primarily due to the influence of social settings. Some cultural rituals around the world promote smoking tobacco among adults especially the men in the community
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Limitation of Managerial Economics Essay E conomists are a paragon of virtue, rationality and common sense amidst a sea of ignorance, superstition and irrationality. They are probably right, but, sometimes it is good to state a case in strong terms, to make people think. However, I feel there is a need to redress the balance and point out the many mistakes and limitations of Economics which are stated below. Economics is difficult John Maynard Keynes said economics is very difficult and many people underestimate how difficult it is. In Maths 2+2 always equals 4, but in economics it usually depends on countless variables almost too difficult to take into account. To give one example, the link between the Money supply and inflation. The quantity theory of money MV=PY or MONEY TIMES VELOCITY EQUALS THE PRICE LEVEL TIMES OUTPUT. This equation can be used to define a link between money growth and inflation that depends on the evolution of money. Velocity of money suggests there is a correlation between the money supply and inflation. (As most non economists would tell you if you print money you will cause inflation). But, in practise the growth of the money supply is influenced by so many variables such as technological change, velocity of circulation and consumer behaviour that M3 growth statistics became almost meaningless. MV=PY is great in theory but in practise it is difficult to make anything out of it. Forecasting the Future It is difficult to forecast the future; yet in economic policy making, it becomes important. Go back to May 2007 and how many economists were predicting a fall in UK house prices of 25% and the deepest recession since the war? I wasnt and certainly not one of the treasury economists, who were predicting stable growth of 2% and a reduction in the governments borrowing. Of course, there were people predicting a house price collapse and they have been proved right. (Though some of them started predicting a house price collapse back in 2000. ) Difficult in knowing where you are One of the great challenges is knowing the current state of the economy. For example, Chinas growth and unemployment figures are always viewed with suspicion. There is great debate about what the US inflation rate is it depends which model you use. Recently, the US GDP statistics were revised meaning that the economy was in recession much earlier than previously thought. How can you make good policy when you dont even know what happened in the past? Let alone predict the future. Using Old Models In a way, this recession is unusual in that it wasnt preceded by an inflationary boom. The government felt that as long as inflation is under control, the economy must be sustainable. However, the mistake was to ignore an asset and lending bubble. The problem is that it is not sufficient to rely on previous experiences. As the economy develops old models become less relevant as they stick to old traditions and data which is useless. Ideology A good economist would be free from ideology and have a willingness to revise theory in light of empirical evidence that doesnt match up to their beliefs or expectations. However, in practise many dislike evidence which doesnt agree with their point of view. For example, some economists place great faith in the virtues of the free market and therefore take a lazy attitude in assuming free markets will always lead to increase economic welfare. The problem is that free markets can often be beneficial. But, at the same time, there will always be exceptions; you cant make generalisations that free markets are always best nor can you make generalisations that free markets are always wrong. Another example of ideological economics could be the assumption that if privatisation works in one country it must be good for other countries too. Free trade is another example. Most economists will tell you free trade is beneficial. But, this doesnt necessarily mean developing countries should always stick to the free trade mantra. There can be exceptions to every rules, for example the infant industry argument.
Monday, April 6, 2020
Georgia Georgia The state of Georgia has a total area of 152,750 sq km (58,977 sq mi), including 2618 sq km (1011 sq mi) of inland water and 122 sq km (47 sq mi) of coastal waters over which the state has jurisdiction. The state is the 24th largest in the country and has the largest land area of any state east of the Mississippi River. Georgia has a top range north to south of 515 km (320 mi) and east to west of 441 km (274 mi). The mean elevation is about 180 m (about 600 ft). Georgia occupies parts of six natural regions, or physiographic provinces. They are the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge province, the Ridge and Valley province, and the Appalachian Plateaus. Almost the whole area of Georgia was forested in early colonial times, and about three-fifths of the land is still covered by forests and woodlands. Mixed forests of deciduous and coniferous trees cover most of the Blue Ridge and Appalachian mountain areas. Normal trees in these areas include species of ash, beech, birch, hemlock, hickory, poplar, sweetgum, sycamore, red oak, white oak, and Virginia, shortleaf, and loblolly pines. Pines which dominate on the Piedmont are loblolly and shortleaf pine trees. On the coastal plains, slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are found. The live oak, the state tree, thrives in the southern part of the coastal plains. Palmettos are found in areas of sandy soil, and bald cypresses and tupelo gums are commonly found in swampy and badly drained areas. Spanish moss festoons many of the cypresses in Okefenokee Swamp. Other trees that are found in the state include the red maple, sweet bay, black cherry, butternut, sassafras, southern magnolia, cottonwood, locust, and elm. Flowering plants grow in great abundance in Georgia. Those natural to the state include the trillium, galax, bellwort, hepatica, mayapple, bloodroot, violet, columbine, lady slipper, and Cherokee rose, which is the stte of Georgia's state flower. Among the many shrubs and tiny flowering trees common in Georgia are species of laurel, mimosa, redbud, flowering dogwood, rhododendron, and flame azalea. White-tailed deer are the most common of the larger mammals found in the state. There are black bears in the northern mountains and in Okefenokee Swamp, and bobcats roam many of the rural areas. Red foxes, gray foxes, muskrats, raccoons, opossums, flying squirrels, foxes and gray squirrels are abundant in the forested areas, and otter and beaver are met in many swamps and rivers. In the mid-1990s there was about 43,000 farms in Georgia. Only about two-fifths had annual sales of $10,000 or more. Many of the rest of the farms were hobbies for operators who held different jobs. Farmland occupied 4.9 million hectares (12.1 million acres), of which less than one-third was harvested. The rest was mostly pasture or woodland. The sale of livestock and livestock products accounts for about three-fifths of total yearly farm income. The sale of produce accounts for the rest. Broilers (young chickens raised for meat) are the state's most valuable farm product, followed by peanuts and beef cattle. The state's other important farm products include eggs, hogs, milk, vegetables, greenhouse seedlings, tobacco, soybeans, corn, pecans, and cotton. Georgia leads all other states in the production of peanuts and pecans and is second after Arkansas in the producing of broilers. Until the Civil War, nearly all the cotton during most of the 19th century, cotton was the main crop. Itwas grown on plantations by black slaves, who picked it by hand. After slavery was abolished most blacks, having no land of their own, became sharecroppers, who got their farm and family supplies on credit from the planters and were in assumption paid a share of the crop income. Under this system, cotton dominated the economy more than ever. However, during the 1920s the boll weevil, a tiny beetle that eats the growing cotton boll, devastated much of the cotton crop and infested great areas of the cotton-growing lands of the South. Moreover, at about that same time, crop yields began to fall, and it became clear that nearly 200 years of constant cotton cultivation had ruined the soil. Efforts were made to vary the state's farm economy. As a result, many cotton lands were planted in other crops or switched over to pasture. Cotton cultivation was resumed after methods were found to control the boll weevil, but cotton acreage was greatly reduced. Beginning in the 1940s, thousands of farms were consolidated and mechanized and the demand for farm workers decreased. As farms consolidated their size got larger, and by
Sunday, March 8, 2020
my part Essays my part Essay my part Essay Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Managing the Job Evaluation Process A job evaluation can be defined as a methodical approach to establishing the value of an occupation in relation to other posts within the organization. Job evaluation processes attempt to build a systematic contrast between tasks to evaluate their relative value for the reason of establishing a balanced pay structure. Job evaluation needs to be distinguished from job analysis that refers to an organized way of collecting information about a profession. Therefore, job evaluation starts with job analysis and concludes when the value of an occupation is determined for attaining pay equity between different professions. Typically, the process of job evaluation follows the following fundamental phases with unique cases having a different approach. As an employer, it is imperative to gain the acceptance of the trade unions and the employees themselves through explaining the objectives and functions of the program. This could be done through oral presentations, internal memos, and brochures to categorize all significant elements of the job evaluation program. The next step involves creating a job evaluation commission. It is impractical for a single individual to assess all the vital posts in an organization. Frequently, a job evaluation commission comprising of knowledgeable personnel, union delegates and human resource professionals is formed to initiate the process. The third phase involves determining the posts to be appraised. It is not mandatory that -very job need not be evaluated as this may be too demanding and expensive. Certain vital jobs in each division may be selected. While selecting the jobs, caution must be taken to ascertain that they are a representative of the type of work done in that sector. This phase should be followed by an analysis and preparation of the job description. These are lists developed to outline the general tasks, functions and duties of a position. Components of a job description include qualifications, salary and other competencies. After this, the method of evaluation is selected. The most relevant method of assessing the positions must be identified, considering the work factors as well as organizational needs. The last phase involves categorizing the jobs. The relative value of different posts in an organization may be discovered after organizing jobs in order of significance using standards such as expertise requirements, experience desired, specific conditions under which tasks are carried out, type of duties to be borne, degree of supervision and the amount of pressure caused by the position. By assigning the weights to each factor, the final value of a position can determined by adding the total of all the weights for each category. These awarded points can then be changed into monetary functions. Several methods of job evaluation have been devised but most of these have been proved to be inefficient and flawed. The ranking method is the most popular and involves categorizing positions from the highest to the lowest as well as using their difficulty as the criterion. The downside to this approach is that it encourages subjectivity and creates conflict. The classification method is more scientific and creates a prearranged number of positions groups where each post is allocated for example executives, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. The problem with this approach is that it oversimplifies the precise differences between different positions and different grades. The most elaborate and systematic method, the factor comparison method, uses a series of factors to rank each position. Examples of these factors include physical and mental effort, duties, working conditions and skill required. The overall process of job evaluation has its own limitations in that it is not completely scientific. The formulas for most of its techniques are also highly questionable and difficult to understand. Lastly, the stakeholders including trade unions representatives, employees and program administrators award different weights to each factor and this creates conflicts.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Cultural Awareness - Essay Example Understanding the Arab culture remains a fundamental element which could ensure that the entire world gains factual information regarding Arabic practices. Some of the misconceptions have resulted in the Arab world becoming associated with the elements of terrorism occurring around the world. The human terrain system which has been adopted by the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ military seeks to utilise social science practices in understanding the cultural practices of Arabs4. The implementation of this programme could be essential in enabling the western world to change the common misconceptions held by the populations regarding the Arab world. The growing political tension between the western and Arab world could become eased through the findings of these anthropological researches. The concept plays a fundamental role in increasing Arab cultural awareness through enhanced cultural knowledge of the populations residing in the Arab world5. Involvement of anthropologists within the programme can also enhance the understanding of the western culture by the
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Would there be Apple without Jobs - Essay Example has grown by leaps and bounds. Steve JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ death earlier this year has raised apprehensions about the future of Apple Inc. Research Problem With the absence of man who has been termed as the single biggest factor in the success of Apple Inc, questions arise whether Tim Cook, the new CEO, will be able to lead the company and retain its dominant position. The other big doubt that emerges is whether Apple Inc. will continue to roll out innovative products as it did during Steve JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ regimen. Research Design The study has used exploratory research to identify the apprehensions raised due to Steve JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ death. Descriptive research has also been used in the study to gauge the likelihood of customers purchasing the Apple brand again. Research Methodology Both primary and secondary research has been used in the study. For primary research a self administered questionnaire was got filled from 100 respondents inside Apple Stores. Findings of the Study Steve Jobs had depar ted from the Apple on earlier ocassions also. Steve Jobs had certain bad qualities and thus was not the perfect manager. Steve Jobs had resigned in August 2011 and Tim Cook, as a part of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s succession plan, has been the CEO since then. ... Apple Computer started manufacturing and selling computers with the launch of Apple II personal computer in 1977. In 1980, the company issued shares to the general public and was incorporated as a public company (By 1987). A year later, in 1981, IBM released its PC and Apple had its first real competitor. In 1985, Steve Jobs left Apple due to his non-compatibility with the then CEO John Sculley. Apple continued to dominate the desktop publishing market for many years after Steve Jobs departure. Under the stewardship of Sculley, Apple grew to an $8 billion company. By 1992, the company started feeling the heat of the competition and its earnings as well as margins started falling. Under pressure to introduce another breakthrough product, Sculley invested a lot of resources on Newton, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Newton did not live up to the expectation and its sales did not really take off. Scully resigned in 1993 and Michael Spindler took charge as CEO. The latte r too did not last long as Apple incurred significant quarterly losses in 1996. The board appointed Dr Gil Amelio to replace Splinder. The move did not work well. Eventually Apple decided to purchase NeXT Computer, the company that Steve Jobs had formed after his departure from Apple Computers. The purchase of NeXT marked the return of Steve Jobs at Apple Computers and the beginning of a new era. What happened after JobÃ¢â¬â¢s homecoming is what the world admires and looks at with awe. Today Apple has become a 32 billion dollar company primarily due to the efforts and expertise of its co-founder, Steve Jobs (Finkle 2010). The iconic Steve Jobs passed away in October 2011. He was 56 and one of the greatest innovator, technical genius and marketing wizard of his time (Streuli